The Semitic peoples began to organize for ever XXXVIII – XXXV b.C. in Mesopotamia between the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, in southern Iraq today, when the Sumerians developed a magnificent civilization around the city of Uruk. This first city-state located on the east bank of the Euphrates river, was projected as a major center of social and architectural proportions highlighting, in its construction two main areas, Eanna and Kullab, who were engaged in independent development of religious and political activities. According to Sumerian tradition, Uruk was the home of Gilgamesh, the hero of an epic that tells a first version of the deluge: the poem of Gilgamesh, the oldest cuneiform text of the story.
In Mesopotamia succeeded religions and deities to the same extent in cultures that followed, first the Sumerian gods worshiped and gradually these were adapted by all peoples Semites: Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Arameans and Chaldeans.
In Sumerian mythology, Inanna was the goddess of love, war, protector of the city of Uruk, was the goddess of nature and fertility. It was the continuation of a tradition of “mother goddesses” but had celebrations and violent sexual connotations associated with a sacred form of prostitution. With the rise of the Akkadian (XXIV-XXII centuries b.C.) Inanna became Ishtar, a loving deity protector of prostitutes and extramarital affairs, was not exactly a goddess of marriage, or a mother goddess.
Subsequently, XX-XVIII centuries b.C. the Akkadians and Sumerians formed the city-state of Babylon that was later settled by the Assyrians. From the twelfth century b.C. due to migratory movements that occurred from desert to fertile areas, the region was first settled by the Arameans and the first millennium b.C. by the Chaldeans, a Semitic tribe of Arab origin who settled in southern Mesopotamia.
In Chaldean mythology Anat, Baal’s sister, was a fertility goddess often represented nude with prominent breasts and vaginal area wearing a hairstyle similar to the Egyptian goddess Hathor. Anat or Anuta, besides being a deity of fertility, was a young and impetuous goddess of war. This deity was known in Egypt under the name Anethet.
In Celtic myth there is a goddess named Anu. This is the maiden form of the goddess Dana or Danu. Anu is the goddess of fertility, abundance and prosperity and can be mistaken for a god of Sumerian and Mesopotamian (Anu), described as a sky god in his day was the most important deity of the Sumerian pantheon. In mythology Armenia, Anahit was the goddess of fertility and birth, was also the goddess of beauty and water and even the war in earlier times.
The early Semites from the thirtieth century b.C. came to the region between the Mediterranean and the Jordan river, which now corresponds to the state of Israel, the Gaza Strip and West Bank, were called Canaanites. The region adopted the name land of Canaan or Israel, until the Romans changed it Palestine (132-135 a.C.). Cradle of civilizations and religions, traces its occupation to the earliest Neolithic phases and is “holy land” for Christians, Jews and Muslims.
The Canaanites were worshipers of the gods Phoenicians. In this mythology Ashtart represents the most important female deity, Astarté in Syro-Palestinian mythology, is the personification of the fertility of land, animals and goddess of love. It represented the cult of mother nature, life and fertility, and the celebration of love and carnal pleasures. In this context, the Carthaginians worshiped Tanit, consort of Baal, as the goddess of earth and fertility, was the most important goddess Carthaginian mythology, adored between 700-200 b.C. by many peoples of diverse cultures in the Mediterranean cities.